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Thermal dissipation probe measurements of sap flow in the xylem of trees documenting dynamic relations to variable transpiration given by instantaneous weather changes and the activities of a mistletoe xylem parasite

Ziegler, Hubert ; Weber, Josef ; Lüttge, Ulrich

Trees, 2009, Vol.23(3), pp.441-450 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Thermal dissipation probe measurements of sap flow in the xylem of trees documenting dynamic relations to variable transpiration given by instantaneous weather changes and the activities of a mistletoe xylem parasite
  • Autor: Ziegler, Hubert ; Weber, Josef ; Lüttge, Ulrich
  • Assuntos: Cohesion/tension theory ; Thermal dissipation probe ; Transpiration ; Mistletoe ; Xylem conduits ; Xylem sap-flow
  • É parte de: Trees, 2009, Vol.23(3), pp.441-450
  • Descrição: The thermal dissipation probe was described in the early 1930s for the demonstration of a volume and mass flow of sap in the conductive elements of the xylem in trees. It was subsequently developed further and is now widely used in physiological ecology including measurements in the field. Thermal dissipation demonstrates the occurrence of sap flow and allows determination of its velocity. Here we report simultaneous continuous measurements of sap flow using the thermal dissipation technique and of transpiration by infrared gas analysis for diurnal and annual cycles in a deciduous and an evergreen oak tree, Quercus robur L. and Quercus turneri Willd., respectively, in a deciduous and an evergreen conifer, Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus griffithii McClell., respectively, and the host/mistletoe consortium of the deciduous linden Tilia mandschurica Rupr. & Max. and the evergreen Viscum album L. We show (1) that in diurnal cycles sap flow closely follows dynamic changes of the rate of transpiration elicited by daily fluctuations of weather parameters (sunshine, cloudiness, air temperature and humidity), (2) that in annual cycles sap flow reflects autumnal yellowing and shedding of leaves of the deciduous trees. We report for the first time comparative measurements of sap flow towards mistletoe shoots and host branches in a parasite/host consortium. This demonstrates (3) that mistletoes maintain considerably larger sap flow rates in their xylem conduits than the adjacent host branches dragging the transpiration stream of their host towards their own shoots. We also show (4) that even after the deciduous host has shed its leaves and itself does not transpire any more the evergreen mistletoe towards its shoots can maintain the persistence of a continuous sap flow via the stem and branches of the host as long as frost does not prevent that. The work presented underlines the contention that transpiration is the driving force for sap flow with continuous files of water in the xylem. It shows for the first time that mistletoes direct the flow of water through host roots and stems towards its own shoots by not only performing stronger transpiration as it is known from the literature but also by maintaining larger sap flow rates in the xylem conduits of its stems.
  • Idioma: Inglês

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