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Promoting Regional Peacemaking

Ripsman, Norrin M

International Journal, June 2012, Vol.67(2), pp.431-436 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Promoting Regional Peacemaking
  • Autor: Ripsman, Norrin M
  • Assuntos: History & Archaeology ; International Relations
  • É parte de: International Journal, June 2012, Vol.67(2), pp.431-436
  • Descrição: In contrast, societal motives played no role in the transition phase of these settlements. Although the states were willing to entertain peacemaking and concessions, public attitudes remained hostile and no significant vested business interests in peacemaking existed. Nor was peacemaking driven by business elites anticipating future gains through peacemaking. In fact, in each of these settlements, state leaderships pursued peacemaking over the objections of societal actors, including parliament, business elites, and the public as a whole. In this regard, I conclude that they were all top-down settlements, rather than bottom-up ones. What lessons can we learn from these peace settlements that can be used to foster peacemaking between other regional antagonists? To begin with, we must distinguish between strategies that are appropriate to promote the transition to a peace agreement and those appropriate for the post-agreement stage. To promote a transition, it is necessary to tailor policies that influence state actors, particularly the leadership or the foreign policy executive, rather than the target state's society.3 To this end, economic incentives and economic assistance should be more attentive to the leadership's needs and objectives, rather than to broader societal needs and development projects, in the pre-agreement period. This means that it is acceptable to extend foreign aid that will be devoted to regime survival or the security sector. Aid may also be used to buy the support of important sectors of the target polity, rather than filtering down to benefit the people and the country as a whole. While it might be unpalatable to extend such aid, it is precisely these grants that are most likely to gain policy traction amongst target regimes. Moreover, as leaders are frequently motivated to engage in peacemaking by severe economic crises that threaten their hold on power, any attempt to provide broader economic benefits to the target society prior to an agreement might backfire by alleviating the economic crisis or enriching and empowering opponents of a treaty. 1 This research is part of a book manuscript in progress, entitled Top-down Peacemaking: Why Peacemaking Begins with States and Ends with Societies. See also Norrin M. Ripsman, "Two stages of transition from a region of war to a region of peace: Realist transition and liberal endurance," International Studies Quarterly 49, no. 4 (December 2005): 669-93; ar|d Norrin M. Ripsman, "Top-down peacemaking: Why peacemaking begins with states and not societies," in TV. Paul, ed., International Relations Theory and Regional Transformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
  • Idioma: Inglês

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