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"Russians at the Gates of India"? Planning the Defense of India, 1885-1900

Johnson, Robert

The Journal of Military History, 2003, Vol.67(3), pp.697-743 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    "Russians at the Gates of India"? Planning the Defense of India, 1885-1900
  • Autor: Johnson, Robert
  • Assuntos: Russia -- Territorial Expansion -- History -- 19th Century ; Great Britain -- Military Policy ; Great Britain -- Relations -- Afghanistan ; Afghanistan -- Relations -- Great Britain
  • É parte de: The Journal of Military History, 2003, Vol.67(3), pp.697-743
  • Descrição: The annexation of Central Asia by Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century, which brought the Tsar's armies to the borders of Afghanistan, compelled the British to consider how to defend their prize imperial possession, India. In the absence of a General Staff, senior officers and the Intelligence Division in London drew up a series of plans over a twenty year period. A variety of solutions were proposed, including amphibious operations in the Black Sea, a thrust through Persia and guerrilla attacks against Russian railroads. However, the most prominent idea, known as the "Scientific Frontier," was to defend India by holding a line along the Hindu Kush mountains deep inside Afghanistan. The chief difficulty was Afghanistan itself. The British were unable to resolve its status: was it an ally, or an enemy? This article seeks to highlight the development of the British plans, and the problems they presented.

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