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Predicting Molecular Crystal Properties from First Principles: Finite-Temperature Thermochemistry to NMR Crystallography

Beran, Gregory J O ; Hartman, Joshua D ; Heit, Yonaton N

Accounts of chemical research, 15 November 2016, Vol.49(11), pp.2501-2508 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Predicting Molecular Crystal Properties from First Principles: Finite-Temperature Thermochemistry to NMR Crystallography
  • Autor: Beran, Gregory J O ; Hartman, Joshua D ; Heit, Yonaton N
  • Assuntos: Thermodynamics ; Crystallography -- Methods ; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Methods
  • É parte de: Accounts of chemical research, 15 November 2016, Vol.49(11), pp.2501-2508
  • Descrição: Molecular crystals occur widely in pharmaceuticals, foods, explosives, organic semiconductors, and many other applications. Thanks to substantial progress in electronic structure modeling of molecular crystals, attention is now shifting from basic crystal structure prediction and lattice energy modeling toward the accurate prediction of experimentally observable properties at finite temperatures and pressures. This Account discusses how fragment-based electronic structure methods can be used to model a variety of experimentally relevant molecular crystal properties. First, it describes the coupling of fragment electronic structure models with quasi-harmonic techniques for modeling the thermal expansion of molecular crystals, and what effects this expansion has on thermochemical and mechanical properties. Excellent agreement with experiment is demonstrated for the molar volume, sublimation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy, and the bulk modulus of phase I carbon dioxide when large basis second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) or coupled cluster theories (CCSD(T)) are used. In addition, physical insight is offered into how neglect of thermal expansion affects these properties. Zero-point vibrational motion leads to an appreciable expansion in the molar volume; in carbon dioxide, it accounts for around 30% of the overall volume expansion between the electronic structure energy minimum and the molar volume at the sublimation point. In addition, because thermal expansion typically weakens the intermolecular interactions, neglecting thermal expansion artificially stabilizes the solid and causes the sublimation enthalpy to be too large at higher temperatures. Thermal expansion also frequently weakens the lower-frequency lattice phonon modes; neglecting thermal expansion causes the entropy of sublimation to be overestimated. Interestingly, the sublimation free energy is less significantly affected by neglecting thermal expansion because the systematic errors in the enthalpy and entropy cancel somewhat. Second, because solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) plays an increasingly important role in molecular crystal studies, this Account discusses how fragment methods can be used to achieve higher-accuracy chemical shifts in molecular crystals. Whereas widely used plane wave density functional theory models are largely restricted to generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals like PBE in practice, fragment methods allow the routine use of hybrid density functionals with only modest increases in computational cost. In extensive molecular crystal benchmarks, hybrid functionals like PBE0 predict chemical shifts with 20-30% higher accuracy than GGAs, particularly for H, C, and N nuclei. Due to their higher sensitivity to polarization effects, O chemical shifts prove slightly harder to predict with fragment methods. Nevertheless, the fragment model results are still competitive with those from GIPAW. The improved accuracy achievable with fragment approaches and hybrid density functionals increases discrimination between different potential assignments of individual shifts or crystal structures, which is critical in NMR crystallography applications. This higher accuracy and greater discrimination are highlighted in application to the solid state NMR of different acetaminophen and testosterone crystal forms.
  • Idioma: Inglês

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