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YOUNG DISADVANTAGED MEN: FATHERS, FAMILIES, POVERTY, AND POLICY; SPECIAL EDITORS: TIMOTHY M. SMEEDING, IRWIN GARFINKEL, RONALD B. MINCY: POLICY PAPERS: Incarceration and Prisoner Reentry in the United States

STEVEN RAPHAEL

Annals, Vol.635 pp.192-240, 2011 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    YOUNG DISADVANTAGED MEN: FATHERS, FAMILIES, POVERTY, AND POLICY; SPECIAL EDITORS: TIMOTHY M. SMEEDING, IRWIN GARFINKEL, RONALD B. MINCY: POLICY PAPERS: Incarceration and Prisoner Reentry in the United States
  • Autor: STEVEN RAPHAEL
  • Assuntos: Noninstitutionalized; Penitentiaries; Victimizations; Unprecedented; Incarceration; Arrangements; Connections; Proportions; Supervision; Postrelease; Criminal Law & Procedure
  • É parte de: Annals, Vol.635 pp.192-240, 2011
  • Descrição: ... Keywords: prisoner reentry; incarceration; workforce development Over the past 30 years in the United States, state governments and the federal government have increased the frequency with which incarceration is used to sanction criminal activity as well as the length of the sentences imposed and ultimate time served for specific offenses. ... Moreover, the large increases in incarceration rates experienced in the past few decades must correspond with large increases in the number and proportion of children who experience a parental incarceration. ... The patterns for federal prisoners are similar, although in federal prisons, male inmates are generally more likely to have minor children than are female inmates. ... The rate for black and Hispanic children was considerably :201;15125:93120322311f;1 FIGURE 5 The Percentage of Children with a Parent in State or Federal Prison in 2007 by Race/Ethnicity above that for whites, with 6.7 percent of black children (7.4 times the rate for white children) and 2.4 percent of Hispanic children (2.6 times the rate for white children) having a parent incarcerated in 2007. ... In an analysis of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), Johnson (2009) estimates the likelihood that PSID children born between 1968 and 2005 whose fathers lived with them at least one year during the study period experienced their fathers serving time in prison or jail. ... Beyond this contemporaneous effect, incarceration is also likely to have a lagged impact on the employment prospects of former inmates as well as a contemporaneous impact on the employment outcomes of men who have not been to prison yet come from demographic subgroups with high incarceration rates. ... In all known employer surveys where employers are asked about their willingness to hire ex-offenders, employer responses reveal a strong aversion to hiring applicants with criminal records (Holzer, Raphael, and Stoll 2006, 2007; Pager 2003). ... We have seen that much of the increase in incarceration over the past few decades has been driven by changes in sentencing policy, with the increased use of incarceration and the increases in time served for specific offenses being the principal culprits.
  • Idioma: Inglês

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