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Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

Rasmussen, Simon ; Allentoft, Morten Erik ; Nielsen, Kasper ; Orlando, Ludovic ; Sikora, Martin ; Sjogren, Karl-Goran ; Pedersen, Anders Gorm ; Schubert, Mikkel ; Van Dam, Alex ; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen ; Nielsen, Henrik Bjorn ; Brunak, Soren ; Avetisyan, Pavel ; Epimakhov, Andrey ; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich ; Gnuni, Artak ; Kriiska, Aivar ; Lasak, Irena ; Metspalu, Mait ; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav ; Gromov, Andrei ; Pokutta, Dalia ; Saag, Lehti ; Varul, Liivi ; Yepiskoposyan, Levon ; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas ; Foley, Robert A. ; Lahr, Marta Mirazon ; Nielsen, Rasmus ; Kristiansen, Kristian ; Willerslev, Eske;

Cell, Oct 22, 2015, Vol.163(3), p.571(12) [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago
  • Autor: Rasmussen, Simon ; Allentoft, Morten Erik ; Nielsen, Kasper ; Orlando, Ludovic ; Sikora, Martin ; Sjogren, Karl-Goran ; Pedersen, Anders Gorm ; Schubert, Mikkel ; Van Dam, Alex ; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen ; Nielsen, Henrik Bjorn ; Brunak, Soren ; Avetisyan, Pavel ; Epimakhov, Andrey ; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich ; Gnuni, Artak ; Kriiska, Aivar ; Lasak, Irena ; Metspalu, Mait ; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav ; Gromov, Andrei ; Pokutta, Dalia ; Saag, Lehti ; Varul, Liivi ; Yepiskoposyan, Levon ; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas ; Foley, Robert A. ; Lahr, Marta Mirazon ; Nielsen, Rasmus ; Kristiansen, Kristian ; Willerslev, Eske
  • Assuntos: Archaeology – Analysis ; Plague – Analysis ; Evolutionary Biology – Analysis ; Genomics – Analysis ; Virulence (Microbiology) – Analysis
  • É parte de: Cell, Oct 22, 2015, Vol.163(3), p.571(12)
  • Descrição: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009 Byline: Simon Rasmussen, Morten Erik Allentoft, Kasper Nielsen, Ludovic Orlando, Martin Sikora, Karl-Goran Sjogren, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Mikkel Schubert, Alex Van Dam, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel, Henrik Bjorn Nielsen, Soren Brunak, Pavel Avetisyan, Andrey Epimakhov, Mikhail Viktorovich Khalyapin, Artak Gnuni, Aivar Kriiska, Irena Lasak, Mait Metspalu, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Andrei Gromov, Dalia Pokutta, Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Robert A. Foley, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Rasmus Nielsen, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev Abstract: The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. Author Affiliation: (1) Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 208, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark (2) Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark (3) Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden (4) Section for Organismal Biology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark (5) Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark (6) Division of Armenology and Social Sciences, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences, 0025 Yerevan, Republic of Armenia (7) Institute of History and Archaeology RAS (South Ural Department), South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia (8) Orenburg Museum of Fine Arts, 460000 Orenburg, Russia (9) Department of Archaeology and Ethnography, Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan, Republic of Armenia (10) Department of Archaeology, University of Tartu, 51003 Tartu, Estonia (11) Institute of Archaeology, University of Wroclaw, 50-139 Wroclaw, Poland (12) Department of Evolutionary Biology, Estonian Biocentre and University of Tartu, 51010 Tartu, Estonia (13) Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia (14) Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, 0014 Yerevan, Armenia (15) Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK (16) Center for Theoretical Evolutionary Genetics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA (17) Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK Article History: Received 6 August 2015; Revised 30 September 2015; Accepted 2 October 2015 Article Note: (footnote) This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Idioma: Inglês

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