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Geochemical fingerprinting of the widespread Toba tephra using biotite compositions.(Report)

Smith, Victoria C. ; Pearce, Nicholas J. G. ; Matthews, Naomi E. ; Westgate, John A. ; Petraglia, Michael D. ; Haslam, Michael ; Lane, Christine S. ; Korisettar, Ravi ; Pal, J. N.;

Quaternary International, Dec 20, 2011, Vol.246(1-2), p.97(8) [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Geochemical fingerprinting of the widespread Toba tephra using biotite compositions.(Report)
  • Autor: Smith, Victoria C. ; Pearce, Nicholas J. G. ; Matthews, Naomi E. ; Westgate, John A. ; Petraglia, Michael D. ; Haslam, Michael ; Lane, Christine S. ; Korisettar, Ravi ; Pal, J. N.
  • Assuntos: Iron Oxides -- Usage ; Iron Oxides -- Chemical Properties ; Volcanoes -- Chemical Properties ; Crystal Structure -- Chemical Properties ; Archaeology -- Chemical Properties
  • É parte de: Quaternary International, Dec 20, 2011, Vol.246(1-2), p.97(8)
  • Descrição: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.05.012 Byline: Victoria C. Smith (a), Nicholas J.G. Pearce (b), Naomi E. Matthews (c), John A. Westgate (d), Michael D. Petraglia (a), Michael Haslam (a), Christine S. Lane (a), Ravi Korisettar (e), J.N. Pal (f) Abstract: Toba caldera, Sumatra, is one of the largest and most explosive volcanoes on Earth, erupting some of the most voluminous volcanic deposits. Chronologically these eruptions are [approximately equal to]790 ka Older Toba Tuff, [approximately equal to]500 ka Middle Toba Tuff, and [approximately equal to]74 ka Younger Toba Tuff. Ash from these eruptions is dispersed over the entire region from India, through Malaysia to Indonesia where it forms isochronous markers that have been documented in a variety of sedimentary sequences including palaeoclimate archives and archaeological sites. The chemistry of the volcanic glass shards usually enables distal volcanic ash units to be correlated to a known eruption. However, the magmas involved in the three largest Toba eruptions are compositionally similar and consequently the glass chemistry that is used to differentiate eruption units cannot be used to identify distal deposits. Here we show that the composition of biotite crystals, which occur with glass in the distal deposits, can be used to fingerprint the deposits of the Younger Toba Tuff. Biotite in Younger Toba Tuff has a lower FeO/MgO (2.1-2.6) than in the products of older eruptions (2.8-3.7). Correlations using these distinct biotite compositions indicate that the ash found in Malaysia and in archaeological sites in India was from the [approximately equal to]74 ka Younger Toba Tuff eruption. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Oxford, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK (b) Aberystwyth University, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB, UK (c) University of Oxford, Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK (d) University of Toronto, Department of Geology, 22 Russell Street, Ontario M5S 3B1, Canada (e) Department of History and Archaeology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India (f) Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India
  • Idioma: English

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