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Gamma-ray observations under bright moonlight with veritas

Archambault, S. ; Archer, A. ; Benbow, W. ; Bird, R. ; Bourbeau, E. ; Bouvier, A. ; Buchovecky, M. ; Bugaev, V. ; Cardenzana, J.V. ; Cerruti, M. ; Ciupik, L. ; Connolly, M.P. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M.K. ; Errando, M. ; Falcone, A. ; Feng, Q. ; Finley, J.P. ; Fleischhack, H. ; Fortson, L. ; Furniss, A. ; Gillanders, G.H. ; Griffin, S. ; Hanna, D. ; Hervet, O. ; Holder, J. ; Hughes, G. ; Humensky, T.B. ; Hütten, M. ; Johnson, C.A. ; Kaaret, P. ; Kar, P. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Krause, M. ; Lang, M.J. ; Lin, T.T.Y. ; Maier, G. ; Mcarthur, S. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; Nieto, D. ; O’brien, S. ; Ong, R.A. ; Otte, A.N. ; Park, N. ; Pohl, M. ; Popkow, A. ; Pueschel, E. ; Quinn, J. ; Ragan, K. ; Reynolds, P.T. ; Richards, G.T. ; Roache, E. ; Rulten, C. ; Sadeh, I. ; Sembroski, G.H. ; Shahinyan, K. ; Staszak, D. ; Telezhinsky, I. ; Trepanier, S. ; Wakely, S.P. ; Weinstein, A. ; Wilcox, P. ; Williams, D.A. ; Zitzer, B.

Archambault, S. Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bourbeau, E.; Bouvier, A.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J.V.; Cerruti, M.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M.P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.K.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J.P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G.H.; Griffin, S.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T.B.; Hütten, M.; Johnson, C.A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Lang, M.J.; Lin, T.T.Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R.A.; Otte, A.N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P.T.; Richards, G.T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Sembroski, G.H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Trepanier, S.; Wakely, S.P.; Weinstein, A.; Wilcox, P.; Williams, D.A.; Zitzer, B. (2017). Gamma-ray observations under bright moonlight with veritas. Astroparticle Physics 91 , 34-43 [Periódico revisado por pares]

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  • Título:
    Gamma-ray observations under bright moonlight with veritas
  • Autor: Archambault, S. ; Archer, A. ; Benbow, W. ; Bird, R. ; Bourbeau, E. ; Bouvier, A. ; Buchovecky, M. ; Bugaev, V. ; Cardenzana, J.V. ; Cerruti, M. ; Ciupik, L. ; Connolly, M.P. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M.K. ; Errando, M. ; Falcone, A. ; Feng, Q. ; Finley, J.P. ; Fleischhack, H. ; Fortson, L. ; Furniss, A. ; Gillanders, G.H. ; Griffin, S. ; Hanna, D. ; Hervet, O. ; Holder, J. ; Hughes, G. ; Humensky, T.B. ; Hütten, M. ; Johnson, C.A. ; Kaaret, P. ; Kar, P. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Krause, M. ; Lang, M.J. ; Lin, T.T.Y. ; Maier, G. ; Mcarthur, S. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; Nieto, D. ; O’brien, S. ; Ong, R.A. ; Otte, A.N. ; Park, N. ; Pohl, M. ; Popkow, A. ; Pueschel, E. ; Quinn, J. ; Ragan, K. ; Reynolds, P.T. ; Richards, G.T. ; Roache, E. ; Rulten, C. ; Sadeh, I. ; Sembroski, G.H. ; Shahinyan, K. ; Staszak, D. ; Telezhinsky, I. ; Trepanier, S. ; Wakely, S.P. ; Weinstein, A. ; Wilcox, P. ; Williams, D.A. ; Zitzer, B.
  • Assuntos: Instrumentation ; Moonlight ; Observing Methods ; Veritas ; Iact ; Crab-Nebula ; Telescope ; Radiation ; Moon
  • É parte de: Archambault, S. Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bourbeau, E.; Bouvier, A.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J.V.; Cerruti, M.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M.P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.K.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J.P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G.H.; Griffin, S.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T.B.; Hütten, M.; Johnson, C.A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Lang, M.J.; Lin, T.T.Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R.A.; Otte, A.N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P.T.; Richards, G.T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Sembroski, G.H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Trepanier, S.; Wakely, S.P.; Weinstein, A.; Wilcox, P.; Williams, D.A.; Zitzer, B. (2017). Gamma-ray observations under bright moonlight with veritas. Astroparticle Physics 91 , 34-43
  • Descrição: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2017.03.001 Byline: S. Archambault (a), A. Archer (b), W. Benbow (c), R. Bird [ralphbird@astro.ucla.edu] (*,d,e), E. Bourbeau (a), A. Bouvier (f,g), M. Buchovecky (d), V. Bugaev (b), J.V. Cardenzana (h), M. Cerruti (c), L. Ciupik (i), M.P. Connolly (j), W. Cui (k,l), M.K. Daniel (c), M. Errando (b), A. Falcone (m), Q. Feng (a), J.P. Finley (k), H. Fleischhack (n), L. Fortson (o), A. Furniss (p), G.H. Gillanders (j), S. Griffin [griffins@physics.mcgill.ca] (*,a), D. Hanna (a), O. Hervet (f), J. Holder (q), G. Hughes (c), T.B. Humensky (r), M. HAaAaAeA tten (n), C.A. Johnson (f), P. Kaaret (s), P. K (t), M. Kertzman (u), D. Kieda (t), M. Krause (n), M.J. Lang (j), T.T.Y. Lin (a), G. Maier (n), S. McArthur (k), P. Moriarty (j), R. Mukherjee (v), D. Nieto (r), S. O'Brien (e), R.A. Ong (d), A.N. Otte (w), N. Park (x), M. Pohl (y,n), A. Popkow (d), E. Pueschel (e), J. Quinn (e), K. Ragan (a), P.T. Reynolds (z), G.T. Richards (w), E. Roache (c), C. Rulten (o), I. Sadeh (n), G.H. Sembroski (k), K. Shahinyan (o), D. Staszak (x), I. Telezhinsky (y,n), S. Trepanier (a), S.P. Wakely (x), A. Weinstein (h), P. Wilcox (s), D.A. Williams (f), B. Zitzer (a) Keywords Instrumentation; Moonlight; Observing methods; VERITAS; IACT Abstract Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) are equipped with sensitive photomultiplier tube (PMT) cameras. Exposure to high levels of background illumination degrades the efficiency of and potentially destroys these photo-detectors over time, so IACTs cannot be operated in the same configuration in the presence of bright moonlight as under dark skies. Since September 2012, observations have been carried out with the VERITAS IACTs under bright moonlight (defined as about three times the night-sky-background (NSB) of a dark extragalactic field, typically occurring when Moon illumination > 35%) in two observing modes, firstly by reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs and, secondly, with the addition of ultra-violet (UV) bandpass filters to the cameras. This has allowed observations at up to about 30 times previous NSB levels (around 80% Moon illumination), resulting in 30% more observing time between the two modes over the course of a year. These additional observations have already allowed for the detection of a flare from the 1ES 1727 + 502 and for an observing program targeting a measurement of the cosmic-ray positron fraction. We provide details of these new observing modes and their performance relative to the standard VERITAS observations. Author Affiliation: (a) Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8, Canada (b) Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA (c) Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645, USA (d) Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA (e) School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland (f) Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA (g) InVisage Technologies, Inc., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA (h) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA (i) Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605, USA (j) School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland (k) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA (l) Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (m) Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA (n) DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen, Germany (o) School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA (p) Department of Physics, California State University, East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542, USA (q) Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA (r) Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA (s) Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA (t) Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA (u) Department of Physics and Astronomy, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135-0037, USA (v) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027, USA (w) School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430, USA (x) Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA (y) Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany (z) Department of Physical Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland * Corresponding authors. Article History: Received 21 October 2016; Revised 1 February 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017

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